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Chapter 2
Freely accessible Language Resources: Dictionaries, Machine Translation, Language Courses

Complete language learning books are rarely found on the Internet. However, there are older copyright-free English courses at the Internet Archive.

The school television classic „Englisch für Anfänger“ (DE → EN), whose 51 episodes can be found completely on Youtube, occupies an absolutely exceptional position. A masterpiece of didactics.

Classical dictionaries and network dictionaries with sound files or with phonetic spelling for pronunciation form a central learning basis. Free dictionary programs and browser extensions (e.g for Be­o­lin­gus and QuickDic) as well as countless freely downloadable dictionaries in the form of text or HTML lists are available for offline operation. Their usage is comfortable and effective, even without a dictionary search mask:

Hold the respective dictionary open in the tab of a web page reader, press the key combination Ctrl + F and enter the word, which automatically jumps to the corresponding translation if the word to be translated is included.

Make use of other free learning materials on the Internet, look for grammar rules, text documents (PDF, HTML), pronunciation aids, sound files, complete scanned books with sound files (audio books or books read in [Youtube]videos), complete video courses, specialized dictionaries and much more. Matching keyword combinations lead to high-quality materials.

If you do not have a broadband Internet connection, you can also download and save larger files (video films, sound files, etc.) from an Internet café (USB stick, DVD, CD-ROM) and then copy them to your local computer, or you can ask a friend to download the relevant materials for you and save them on a USB stick.

The present list of language-relevant web pages is an exemplary compilation, it makes no claim to completeness and is deliberately kept manageable.




Table of Contents Chapter 2






2.1 Online Dictionaries, multilingual, with Sound Files and multi-language User Interfaces
For Language Studies and Translation Projects
Bildquelle: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oxygen480-apps-kthesaurus.svg
     Originalbildquelle: http://websvn.kde.org/trunk/kdesupport/oxygen-icons/scalable/apps/kthesaurus.svgz?view=log,
     Lizenz: http://websvn.kde.org/trunk/kdesupport/oxygen-icons/COPYING?view=markup

Make intensive use of online dictionaries. In word translation results lists, vocabulary and idioms are usually presented in different frames of reference (contexts). By pressing the accompanying speaker symbol, you memorize the native speaker sound, including the correct emphasis. Some web pages also display the pronunciation in written form, in so-called IPA notation. This allows you to memorize new words twice, acoustically and visually.

The online dictionaries examined have a high level of performance and a wide range of functions. The possibilities and selection menus are therefore only partially described. Almost all projects offer a participation: Submission of word suggestions, sound file recording, quality control and more. Begin by going through all the features, categories and subpages to find the areas that are relevant to you and get the most out of the content on offer. Get overviews!:

Read the “Alpha Dictionary Language Directory”. Study the reference lists of Lexilogos. There, numerous online dictionaries are listed for more than 108 languages, which can also be addressed directly via a search mask. In addition, this site offers extensive reference collections to freely downloadable dictionaries, rulebooks and other language learning materials.

Read the online dictionary section of Omniglot, one of the most comprehensive and substantial language sites on the Internet.

Similarsites.com also offers numerous pre-sorted cream-de-la-cream websites on the subject of language: If you enter the address of a website, all known related websites of the search index will be compiled and presented in a list (WP article “Website correlation”); 18 or 19 languages are available for the menu navigation. Similarsites.de and Similarsitesearch.com prepare the presented search results differently. Here are three example search queries for three language-relevant pages: dict.cc, Linguee.com and Reverso.net.

Further dictionaries can also be found in “Wi­ki­pe­dia:​Nach­schla­ge­wer­ke im In­ter­net/Wör­ter­bü­cher” (Wiki­pe­dia:Reference Works in the Internet/Dictionaries), in “Wi­ki­pe­dia:​Nach­schla­ge­wer­ke im In­ter­net/Kosten­lo­se Über­set­zungs­dien­ste“ (Wikipedia:Reference Works in the Internet/free Trans­la­tion services) as well as in the WP-​overviews “Ca­te­go­ry:​On­line dic­tio­na­ries” and “Ka­te­go­rie:​On­line­wör­ter­buch”.

Short definitions of various dictionary-relevant terms, definition extracts are taken from the linked WP-sources:

“[...] A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language. [...], “[...] Complementary antonyms are word pairs whose mean­ings are opposite [...]”.

Etymology [...] is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time. [...] By extension, the term ‘the etymology (of a word)’ means the origin of the particular word. [...]”

A Definition for “thesaurus” (plural: thesauri): “[...] In general usage, a thesaurus is a ref­er­ence work that lists words grouped together according to similarity of meaning (containing synonyms and sometimes antonyms), in contrast to a dictionary, which provides definitions for words, and generally lists them in alphabetical order. The main purpose of such reference works is to help the user ‘to find the word, or words, by which [an] idea may be most fitly and aptly expressed’ – to quote Peter Mark Roget, architect of the best known thesaurus in the English language. [...]” Word definitions at Wik­ti­o­nary and at Merriam-Webster.

The overview article “Free Typesetting Software for the Professional Document Preparation” also discusses language-specific aspects of text input.



Beolingus  •  Odge.de  •  Linguatools  •  Linguee and DeepL  •  PONS  •  Reverso  •  LEO  •  dict.cc  •  Langenscheidt  •  Woxikon  •  phrasen.com  •  Weitere




2.1.1 Beolingus
Image source and copyright: BEOLINGUS

BEOLINGUS offers comprehensive dictionaries of the TU-​Chem­nitz, with pho­netic transcription and sound files created by humans. The languages offered in­clude: German ↔ Eng­lish, German ↔ Span­ish, German ↔ Portuguese.

The search acuity can be encircled by a filter and the pho­net­ic transcription display can be switched on and off. All criteria can be defined centrally over the pref­er­ences and usage tips category, even solid expressions can be displayed (“Show also vulgar and slang words”).

The „Help“-category contains detailed operating in­struc­tions, in the Word lists for special subjects you will find dictionaries on numerous areas of life and work. In the Con­ver­sions of Units-site, you can convert units of meas­ure­ment of the Anglosphere into metric units. Fur­ther sections contain grammar aids.

BEOLINGUS has an exceptional position among the dic­tion­aries with regard to the extensive range of possible uses; more detailed information is available in the FAQ sec­tion; browser extensions as well as dictionaries for offline operation are also available free of charge. Excerpt from the WP article „Beolingus“ "Beolingus" (as of December, 2016), translated:

“[...] Beolingus offers translations of more than 706,000 (German-English), 120,000 (German-Spanish) and 44,000 (German-Portuguese) terms (as of December 2016)[...] In addition to word translations, explanations, synonyms, antonyms, sayings, aphorisms and quotations can also be found there. It is one of the three largest German-English dictionaries along with dict.cc and LEO. German and American pronunciation by native speakers can be listened to. It also offers translations into Spanish and Portuguese.[...]


BEOLINGUS: Offered Menu Languages (User Interface)
German English Spanish




2.1.2 Odge.info
Image source and copyright: Odge.info

Odge.info, the „online dictionary German-English“, presents itself with a clas­sic, simple and appealing user interface that is available in En­glish and in German. Vocabulary extensions can be suggested in the Enter new word section. The license basis is GPL-based, see “License-information” for more details.

Odge.info draws on a vocabulary that has grown during decades, and has been con­tin­u­ous­ly expanded since 2004. Sample translation queries: instantly, refined. Some result lists are several pages long, so it's a good idea to scroll all the way down.


2.1.3 linguatools
Image source and copyright: www.linguatools.de

Linguatools.de offers powerful context dictionaries, with auto-completion sug­ges­tions as you type. So far the user interface is only available in German. You don't have to understand German to use it, except for the following headings: “Über­set­zun­gen” = translations; “Ver­wen­dungs­bei­spie­le” = examples of use; “Com­pu­ter­ge­ne­rier­te Über­set­zungs­vor­schlä­ge” = com­put­er generated translation sug­ges­tions.

Extract of the self description (May 18, 2017): „Context Dictionary[:] The Context Dictionary translates between German and ten European languages. It provides millions of bilingual example sentences for each language pair that show you how words and phrases are actually used in real world contexts.“ The dic­tion­aries can also be accessed at linguatools.com. Example translation query: in my opin­ion, background knowledge.


Linguatools: Offered Language Dircections
German ↔ English German ↔ French German ↔ Spanish
German ↔ Schwedish German ↔ Dutch German ↔ Portuguese
German ↔ Greek German ↔ Italian German ↔ Czech
German ↔ Polish




2.1.4 Linguee and the DeepL-Translator

Linguee consists of a classic dictionary and a context-based translation system based on human translations. It shows you how others have translated your text (word, phrase or fragment and complete sentences) in different contexts. The basis is a continuously updated database of high-quality, i.e. man-made translations, including bilingual websites from the Internet.

Thus, numerous translation situations from everyday life are automatically taken into account in translation requests. Example query (EN ↔ DE): continous im­prove­ment; this results in a primarily suggested translation compared to “less common” resp. less frequent phrases, as well as in an “Examples” and a “See also” column followed by “Ex­ter­nal sources [...]” listing numerous translations in context. Users have the possibility to par­tic­i­pate, whereby a continuous improvement of the data stock takes place.

Bildschirmfoto: Ausschnitt der Nutzerschnittstelle von Linguee.com,
     25. September 2016

The sound recordings of the dictionary are recorded by native speakers and are available in American English as well as British English for words with very different expressions. Example translation requests for words whose pronunciation in General American is clearly different from British English: ask, answer, adver­tisement.

Further information can be found in Linguee's own description as well as in the WP-​Artikel “Linguee”. Linguee has been publicly available since 2009 and provides excellent services. Comparable context-based dictionaries: Linguatools, Reverso Context.


Linguee: Offered Menu Languages (User Interface)
English
(language directions)
German
(language directions)
French
(language directions)
Spanish
(language directions)
Chinese
(language directions)
Russian
(language directions)
Japanese
(language directions)
Portuguese
(language directions)
Italian
(language directions)
Dutch
(language directions)
Polish
(language directions)
Schwedish
(language directions)
Danish
(language directions)
Finnish
(language directions)
Greek
(language directions)
Czech
(language directions)
Romanian
(language directions)
Hungarian
(language directions)
Slovak
(language directions)
Bulgarian
(language directions)
Slovenian
(language directions)
Lithuanian
(language directions)
Latvian
(language directions)
Maltese
(language directions)


Linguee's vast database forms the basis of what is currently the most powerful computer translation system. Section 2.2 contains instructions on how to use DeepL.





2.1.5 PONS

PONS, “PONS - The free dictionary for foreign languages, German spelling and full-text trans­la­tions”, offers dictionaries for more than a dozen languages, with phonetic transcription and com­put­er-generated sound files,- as well as a translation system.

The pronunciation (loudspeaker symbol) and the corresponding phonetic transcription for Brit­ish Eng­lish and American Eng­lish

are listed in parallel in PONS. Example words: ask, an­swer. When the mouse pointer is moved over the phonetic transcription, example words in which the respective sound occurs are displayed for each individual IPA character. Call up already known words and memorize their written sound pattern, thus you will quickly become familiar with the phonetic symbols.

Bildschirmfoto: Ausschnitt der Nutzerschnittstelle von Pons.com,
     30. September 2016
Screenshot: Section of the user interface of Pons.com,  September 30, 2016.

Phonetic characters are illustrated with examples as you drive over them (here the German unser interface)

Important for the preparation of English texts: The word gaps (hyphenation gaps) are displayed. This is very advantageous, as the syllabification of the English languages is not carried out according to the same simple rules as in German. Note, however, that hyphenation patterns vary within the Anglosphere. [1] [2] [3] [4].

Within the header line of the word entry in question is a small information-​i on the right. Press it to display fur­ther “options”, including PONS' syno­nyms; if you select “Links to further information”, a menu of 16 dic­tion­aries or language-rele­vant pages will appears. Click on the corresponding entry to forward your word request directly to the corresponding Online dictionary.

Sample sentences are available for the individual words, both editorially checked and unchecked from the Internet. Note the tabs and pop-up menus, and go right down to the bottom of the page to get an overview. Information about the publisher can be found the German WP-​ar­ti­cle “Pons-​Ver­lag”.

PONS-Verlag can look back on decades of history; PONS-Online has existed since 2001.

[1] “Canadian, British and American Spelling [,] General Rules for Regional Differences

[2] “American and British English spelling differences

[3] WP-article “Syllabification

[4] WP-article “Phonetics



PONS: Offered Menu Languages (User Interface)
German English French Russian Spanish Portuguese
Italian Slovak Greek Turkish Polish Chinese


PONS-Online-Dictionary: English ↔ Other Language
(there are numerous further Language Directions)
English ↔ German English ↔ French English ↔ Russian
English ↔ Italian English ↔ Chinese English ↔ Portuguese
English ↔ Spanish English ↔ Slovenian English ↔ Arabic
English ↔ Polish




2.1.6 Reverso

Reverso offers powerfull dictionaries Reverso offers powerful dictionaries, various grammar aids and a context-based word or phrase translation system comparable to Linguee, Reverso ContextReverso Context. The dictionaries cover a total of 14 languages. Users can participate, which has a positive effect on quality control. More detailed information can be found

in Reverso's own descriptions, e.g. in in “About the contextual dictionary” (also contains operating instructions), in “What is Re­ver­so all about?” and in the WP-​article “Re­ver­so (logiciel)”.

Already during the input the auto-completion lists known words and/or word combinations and idioms as input suggestions. The results are presented in groups.

Bildschirmfoto: Ausschnitt der Nutzerschnittstelle von Reverso.net,
     25. September 2016

The menu of Re­ver­so Con­text, the pow­er­ful context based dictionary, is available in 12 lan­guages: In German, English, French, Spanish, Por­tu­guese, Russian, Dutch, Italian, Polish, Arabic and He­brew. Example translation requests for the direction Ger­man ↔ English: “in my opinion”, “under the cir­cum­stances”. Already during the input the auto-completion lists known words and/or word combinations and idioms as input suggestions. The results are presented in groups. If you move to the individual areas highlighted in light blue, an information window will display the total number of the respective example translations, which will then be listed by pressing.

Bildschirmfoto: Ausschnitt der Nutzerschnittstelle von Reverso.net,
     25. September 2016

Directly below, in a "German ↔ English" comparison, a subset of the results is displayed. If you move the mouse pointer into the respective line, it will be highlighted in colour and symbols for various functions will appear, including the loudspeaker symbol: Press to play the pronunciation (computer generated pronunciation). Move to the respective symbol to display the function behind it.

There is a book symbol to the right of the search entry. By clicking on it, the query is forwarded to the classic Reverso dictionary. This comprises 14 languages, the menu navigation is available in a total of 6 languages: German, English, French, Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese.

Re­ver­so Conjugation conjugates verbs of German, English, French, Spanish, and Heb­rew. The menu is available in German, English, French, Spanish, and in Italian.

The Re­ver­so Online spellchecker is available for English and French, whereby settings can be made

for American English and British English. Available menu languages are: Eng­lisch, French and Spanish.

Re­ver­so Grammar offers grammar checks for English and French. The menu is available in English and French.

Re­ver­so Translation provides machine translation services:


Reverso Translation: Offered Menu Languages (User Interface)
German English French Spanish Portuguese
Russian Italian Czech Japanese Romanian


Reverso Translate: Translation Directions
English ↔ German German ↔ English French ↔ German German ↔ French
German ↔ Spanish Spanish ↔ German Russian ↔ German German ↔ Russian
Portuguese ↔ German German ↔ Portuguese English ↔ Spanish Spanish ↔ English
English ↔ Russian Russian ↔ English English ↔ Portuguese Portuguese ↔ English
English ↔ Hebrew Hebrew ↔ English




2.1.7 LEO
Bildschirmfoto: Ausschnitt der Nutzerschnittstelle von Leo.org,
     01. Oktober 2016

LEO is one of the oldest online dictionaries in the German-speaking world. The accompanying sound files were and are re­cord­ed by native speakers. You can use the information-i to forward your request to other dictionaries, including the “On­line Ety­mo­lo­gy Dic­ti­o­na­ry”, which lists information on the origin of words. Examples: Translation request for “answer”, results at etymonline.com, dictionary entry at Merriam-Webster.com.

Pay attention to the sometimes very small speaker symbol of other dictionaries. LEO offers various short guides to the individual website functions, including the online dictionary func­tion (a total of 11 pages). LEO also offers also an extensive collection of link list to other lan­guage-relevant web pages: “Useful links”. Information on the history of the LEO-​project can be found in the WP-​article “LEO (website)”; the origins of LEO go back to the early 1990s. Sample translation request: interested.


LEO: Offered Menu Languages (User Interface)
for the Direction German ↔ [other Language]
Deutsch English French Russian Spanish Portuguese
Italian Polish Chinese




2.1.8 dict.cc

The very comprehensive online dictionary dict.cc offers support for dozens of other languages in addition to the German-English dictionary. Almost all entries are provided with sound files recorded by native speakers. Users can participate in the expansion of vocabulary and idioms, and submit suggestions for improvement.

In addition to subject-specific word lists, the entire vocabulary database can also be downloaded. Such a

pure text file is very effective for offline operation, even without a dictionary search mask. The settings for the result output can be specified directly below the search field via “Options”.

Detailed information can be found in dict.cc's own description, under “About/​Ex­tras”, in the WP-article “dict.cc” and in the sections “FAQ”, “Tips”, and “Downloads”. dict.cc exists since 2002.

Bildschirmfoto: Ausschnitt der Nutzerschnittstelle von dict.cc,
     18. September 2016

An application example: Translate the word typewriter into German. The auto­com­ple­tion function suggests input as you type, which is useful if you don't remember the correct spelling.

The left column now contains the German result, “Schreibmaschine”, followed by further relevant words (compound nouns, associated verbs etc.). When you left click on the word, the result list is presented differently. Right-clicking opens a menu for the vocabulary trainer and other functions.

When using a dictionary for the first time, always go down to the very bottom to get to know all functions and additional information. Press the speaker icon to the left of each word entry to listen to the pronunciation. By default, the recording of a native speaker is played; if this is not available, you will hear a computer-generated pronunciation. At the same time a window opens in which you can choose between the available sound recordings.

Bildschirmfoto: Ausschnitt von dict.cc,
     18. September 2016

This menu can also be used to call up information on the linguistic background of the speakers (click on the profile name) and on the voice recording itself (“Info”). Note that for many menus and functions, descriptions and additional information appear after a short wait when you move the mouse pointer over them (WP-​ar­ti­cle “Tool­tip”), such as in this sentence, at the last word. Translation request for heu­tig, at dict.cc.

On the right of the loudspeaker symbol there is an information symbol, a small i. By pressing on it with the left mouse button a menu window opens, the preset function is the “Voice Out­put”. For example, let the entry of one of more than a dozen other network dictionaries be displayed: 1. Select “PONS”, whereby the entry of PONS.com for “Schreibmaschine” appears in a separate broswer tab. (“Tab (GUI)”).

2. At PONS you can now also listen to the pronunciation. In addition, it is also displayed there in IPA-​phonetic-​tran­script­ion. The pronunciation (loudspeaker symbol) and the corresponding phonetic description for British English and American English are displayed in parallel in PONS. Example words: ask, answer.

PONS also displays separation joints, although the syllabification of the English written language may vary from country to country (Britain, U.S.A., Canada, etc.).

Instead of the loudspeaker symbol, dict.cc now always displays the symbol of the last called function, in this case a “P” for “PONS”. The default setting is restored by calling up the “Voice Output” function again.

Some dict.cc-dictionaries are still under construction. However, for the sake of completeness, most of them are listed here. The language of the activated dictionary is also indicated by a flag symbol in the tab (favicon), with the exception of English.


dict.cc: Offered Menu Languages (User Interface)
English German


dict.cc-Dictionaries. English ↔ Other Languages.
English ↔ German English ↔ French English ↔ Spanish
English ↔ Portuguese English ↔ Russian English ↔ Hungarian
English ↔ Serbian English ↔ Croatian English ↔ Slovakian
English ↔ Dutch English ↔ Schwedish English ↔ Norwegian
English ↔ Danish English ↔ Finnish English ↔ Icelandic
English ↔ Romanian English ↔ Bulgarian English ↔ Italian
English ↔ Greek English ↔ Polish English ↔ Czech
English ↔ Turkish English ↔ Bosnian English ↔ Albanian
English ↔ Latin English ↔ Esperanto


dict.cc-Dictionaries: German ↔ Other Language.
German ↔ English German ↔ French German ↔ Spanish
German ↔ Portuguese German ↔ Russian German ↔ Hungarian
German ↔ Serbian German ↔ Croatian German ↔ Slovakian
German ↔ Dutch German ↔ Schwedish German ↔ Norwegian
German ↔ Danish German ↔ Finnish German ↔ Icelandic
German ↔ Romanian German ↔ Bulgarian German ↔ Italian
German ↔ Greek German ↔ Polish German ↔ Czech
German ↔ Turkish German ↔ Bosnian German ↔ Albanian
German ↔ Latin German ↔ Esperanto




Langenscheidt

The tradition-rich Lan­gen­scheidt-Verlag (WP-​article) offers a comprehensive online dictionary with (presumably computer generated) audio files and a synonym section.

Example translation query for the direction German → Eng­lish: hin­ter­fra­gen.


Langenscheidt: Offered Menu Languages
User Interface, language menu there at the top-right
English German Spanish French Italian

Langenscheidt-Dictionaries: German ↔ Other Language.
German ↔ English German ↔ French German ↔ Spanish
German ↔ Portuguese German ↔ Italian German ↔ Dutch
German ↔ Russian German ↔ Greek German ↔ Danish
German ↔ Schwedish German ↔ Czech German ↔ Arabic
German ↔ Persian;






2.1.9 Woxikon
Grafikquelle: https://www.woxikon.de

Woxikon offers dictionaries for a total of 22 languages as well as a powerful synonym dictionary for the German language and other languages; users can participate. In addition, there are other useful language sections. By pointing at the

loudspeaker symbol, the pronunciation of a word recorded by native speakers is automatically played back (not yet available for all words). Example translation requests for German ↔ English: mind, synonyms for mind, ex­cel­lent.


Woxikon: Offered Menu Languages (User Interfaces)
German English

Woxikon-Dictionary: English ↔ other Language
English ↔ German English ↔ French English ↔ Spanish English ↔ Russian
English ↔ Dutch English ↔ Portuguese English ↔ Italian English ↔ Danish
English ↔ Schwedish English ↔ Polish English ↔ Afrikaans English ↔ Hindi
English ↔ Hungarian English ↔ Bulgarian English ↔ Czech English ↔ Slovenian
English ↔ Japanese English ↔ Chinese English ↔ Vietnamese

Woxikon: Synonym Dictionaries for the Languages
English German French
Spanish Portuguese Dutch
Schwedish Italian Polish






2.1.10 phrasen.com
Grafikquelle: https://www.phrasen.com

phrasen.com is a huge database for phrases, as well as a translation system for phrases, for the direction German ↔ English.

An example of application: You would like to familiarize yourself with common idiomatic expressions/correspondence phrases in connection with ordering.

1. Enter the word Bestellung.

2. Numerous phrases appear that contain the word Be­stel­lung.

3. Select the entry “Bit­te be­stä­ti­gen Sie den Er­halt der Be­stel­lung”

4. Now the corresponding entry appears, with a reference to the English translation, “Please con­firm receipt of the order”, in addition, related German phrases are listed.

5. Click on the English entry to open the corresponding record for the English equivalent and its related phrases.


The link list “Wei­ter­füh­ren­de Links zum The­ma Re­cher­che, Wör­ter­buch, Wort­schatz und Spra­che” (Related links to the topics research, dictionary, vocabulary and language) lists thematically related websites.

A translated excerpt of the self description of phrasen.com (17.10.2016):

Dictionary of English/German idioms

Phrasen.com is a dictionary for English-German, German-English expressions (idioms, empty phrases, proverbs, dictums etc.). Phrasen.com however also offers translation examples of entire sentences without idiomatic reference.

To look up translations for a particular idiom and expand your vocabulary, you can either feed the search mask with keywords or use the alphabetical overview.

German original text:

Wör­ter­buch eng­lisch/deut­scher Re­de­wen­dun­gen

Phrasen.com ist ein Wör­ter­buch für eng­lisch-​deut­sche, deutsch-​eng­li­sche Re­de­wen­dun­gen (Re­dens­ar­ten, Flos­keln, Sprich­wör­ter, ge­flü­gel­te Wor­te etc.). Phrasen.com bie­tet aber auch Über­set­zungs­bei­spie­le gan­zer Sät­ze oh­ne idi­o­ma­ti­schen Be­zug.

Um Über­set­zun­gen für ei­ne be­stimm­te Re­de­wen­dung nach­zu­schla­gen und Ih­ren Wort­schatz zu er­wei­tern, kön­nen Sie ent­we­der die Such­maske mit Stich­wor­ten füt­tern oder die al­pha­be­ti­sche Über­sicht be­nut­zen.





2.1.11 More Online Dictionaries and Link Lists

Have a look at the WP-link-lists “Wi­ki­pe­dia:​Nach­schlag­ewer­ke im In­ter­net/Wör­ter­bü­cher” (Wiki­pe­dia:Reference Works in the Internet/Dictionaries) and “Wi­ki­pe­dia:Nach­schla­ge­wer­ke im In­ter­net/Kosten­lo­se Über­set­zungs­dien­ste” (Wikipedia:Reference Works in the Internet/free Trans­la­tion Services),

which list many other dictionaries, including specialized ones.

Google search for dictionaries (you can add a language), online dictionaries, and sayings (you can optionally add a language).


2.1.11.1 bab.la
Grafikquelle: https://de.bab.la

bab.la maintains an “Online dictionary for 28 languages”, and offers many other language sections as well as computer-generated sound files. The site is available in a total of 28 languages (user interfaces) and provides a participation function.

Sample translation request: excellent. Sample translation request, English ↔ Ger­man: excellent.

Self description by Bab.la, Youtube video „Welcome to bab.la“.


2.1.11.2 Redensarten-Index
Grafikquelle: https://www.redensarten-index.de

Redensarten-Index.de [German] contains a lot of information about idioms and sayings. Translated excerpt from the own description (October 02, 2016): “[...] With this data base all those are to be given a assistance, which want to

look up the meaning of phrases and idioms. [...]”. The Redensarten-Index exists since May 2001 and is constantly extended. [...]”. To the entries of the example rubric.


2.1.11.3 woerterbuch.info
Grafikquelle: http://www.woerterbuch.info

woerterbuch.info provides dictionaries of words and synonyms as well as a machine full-text translation system for four languages. Computer-generated sound files help you learn the

pronunciation. More information can be found in the [German] manual; there is also a join-in function. Example translation requests: imagination, synonym for imagination.

woerterbuch.info: Offered Dictionaries
German ↔ English German ↔ French German ↔ Spanish German ↔ Italian


2.1.11.4 dict.blueseal.eu
Grafikquelle: https://dict.blueseal.eu

dict.blueseal.eu dict.blueseal.eu maintains translation and synonym dictionaries. Extract from the own description (August 07, 2019): “[...] The Blueseal dictionary provides trans­la­tions of words and expressions between German, Eng­lish, Spanish and French in all possible combinations.

It also provides a synonym dictionary for all these languages. All the dictionaries offered by Blueseal are also available for use with smartphones or tablets under: https://mdict.blueseal.eu. [...]”

Sample translation request for the word recurrent, example synonym request for extraordinary.


Dict.Blueseal.eu: Dictionaries
German ↔ English German ↔ French German ↔ Spanish
English ↔ Spanish English ↔ French Spanish ↔ French


dict.blueseal.eu: Snyonym Dictionaries
German English Spanish French



2.1.11.5 QuickDic [with download option!]
Grafikquelle: http://quickdic.org/index_d.html

QuickDic.org is an excellent dictionary for the language directions German ↔ English. Mark the option “Show phonetic transcriptions” in the start menu from the outset.

There is also a version for offline operation available for download, which you can extend and maintain with your own entries.


2.1.11.6 Wie sagt man noch?

Wie sagt man noch? offers dictionaries and translations (including whole sentences) to dozens of languages, for the direction German ↔ [Other language] (overview) and English ↔ [Other language] (overview). In addition, comprehensive basic information on the subject of language is provided.

Bildschirmfoto: Ausschnitt der Nutzerschnittstelle von wie-sagt-man-noch.de,
     11. Oktober 2016

Application example: Request the translation for the word nach­denk­lich. On the left side of the result list, German synonyms are listed for the word "nach­denk­lich" (thoughtful), referring to the frame-dependent meaning of the word in brackets. To the right you will find the translation proposal. All these English words are in turn linked to a further entry. A second synonym table is presented below. Established since 2004, Wie-​sagt-​man-​noch.de offers an extensive vocabulary.


2.1.11.7 ego4u.de

ego4u.de operates a powerful “German-English Dictionary”. Activate the phonetic transcription display option from the outset (introductory article) and try out the following word translation requests: work out, answer.

The user interface can be optionally displayed in English and German. In addition, there are numerous learning materials and articles for personal language study.


2.1.11.8 Various
Online dictionaries for the English language, held in English:
More:

Google search queries: online dictionaries  •  offline dictionaries  •  dictionaries

Fahne der Konföderierten. Verweis auf Quelle: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Confederate_Rebel_Flag.svg

“Rhodesians Worldwide” has a “Dictionary of Rhodesian Slang”. Further information, among others: You­tube-​Vi­deo “Beautiful Rhodesia”, Google image search for Rhodesia Salisbury, for Rho­desia Bulawayo.

alphaDictionary.com maintains „A Glossary of Quaint Southernisms.“

In German: Detailed, realistic background information on the history of the southern states and the current situation in the V.S.A. can be found, for example, in the Youtube interview “107. Ta­ges­e­ner­gie mit ale­xan­der”, from the time 1:39:40 (99th minute), as well as in Con­reb­bi's contribution “Ge­schäfts­wer­dung der Welt- USA”.


2.1.12 Building the Personal Language Literature Library

In order to build up your personal language library and to continuously improve your language skills, as many books and language teaching films as possible should be archived locally, on your computer and of course in parallel on several backup data carriers (USB memory, DVDs, etc.).

As far as possible, make yourself independent of the availability of online language resources so that you can continue working even if there should be a prolonged Internet outage or if computer servers should be shut down.

2.1.12.1 A huge Stock of copyright-free digitized Books: The Internet Archive

The Internet Archive (WP-article) offers a huge collection of literature relevant to language learning, including language courses, dictionaries, phonetic and linguistic books. Some of the more recent works can be borrowed online, but most can be accessed directly. In addition, there are huge collections of copyright-free books that continue to be of great use in learning today's everyday languages. Books published before 1923 are largely copyright-free. Books published after this date are subject to different regulations for libraries. Read the blog entry “Books from 1923 to 1941 Now Liberated!”

Search for the books that are relevant to you. Encircle the search, name the language in which the books are to be written, list the thematic keywords. Search the library several times, there are tens of thousands of book titles on the subject of language, everything depends on the right search terms. Download the titles that are relevant to you, and from the start create an orderly structure in your file archive, with meaningful folder and subfolder names.

In addition to the in-house search system, you can also use separate search engines such as Google to find relevant textbooks. Example searches: archive.org English Phonetics; archive.org American English Phonetics, archive.org German Phonetics, archive.org American English.

English: Learn about two standard dictionary works on the English language, read the following WP articles: “Webster's Third New In­ter­na­ti­onal Dic­tion­ary” und “Oxford Eng­lish Dic­tion­ary”. Also browse: “Cat­ego­ry:Eng­lish dic­tion­aries”. It is a good idea to save several extensive dictionaries in PDF format for your local library so that you can look them up and continue working even when you are offline. Scrolling through PDF documents of scanned books is a bit slower, but the huge vocabulary is invaluable for a network-independent language literature private library. Some PDFs are also available in a black-and-white version (two-color), usually referred to as "B/W PDF" (black and white); they are more lightweight and therefore easier to flip through than books scanned in grayscale or color. Always download all available PDF versions; one or the

other version is more advantageous for grayscale or color images.

The Internet Archive maintains various copyright-free downloadable versions of Webster's New In­ter­na­ti­o­nal, one of which dates from 1910 and contains 2820 pages (PDF: 2.4 GB): “Webster's New international dictionary of the English language, based on the International dictionary of 1890 and 1900”.

One of the Oxford dictionaries is “The concise Oxford dic­tion­ary of cur­rent Eng­lish”, 1084 pages (PDF: 122 MB). For the Oxford Eng­lish Dic­tion­ary there is also a freeware software available at archive.org, for MS-​Win­dows, “Oxford Eng­lish Dic­tion­ary, 1888” (absolute.net shows an enlargeable screenshot).

German: Introductory WP-​articles: “Deut­sches Wör­ter­buch”, “Ka­te­go­rie:Deut­sches Wör­ter­buch”. Highly rec­om­mend­ed MP articles (de.​metapedia.​org): “Ge­brü­der Grimm” • “Wör­ter­buch” • “Du­den”. Online dictionaries: “Di­gi­ta­les Wör­ter­buch der deut­schen Spra­che” (dwds.de) • “Deut­sches Wör­ter­buch von Ja­cob Grimm und Wil­helm Grimm” (online-Wörterbuch) • Search at archive.org, via Google.com: deut­sches Wör­ter­buch archive.org.

The Internet Archive holds numerous titles of the classic Muret-​Sanders en­zy­klo­pä­di­sches Wör­ter­buch der eng­li­schen und deut­schen Spra­che, including a version from 1910. Read the description at absolute.net, Muret-​Sanders Classic.

The Metapedia article “Deutsche Sprache” (de.​metapedia.​org) contains highly significant knowledge of German for both German learners and native speakers, which is not summarized anywhere else in a comparable way, es­pe­cial­ly with regard to contemporary aspects. It is con­sid­er­ably shorter than the Wikipedia article of the same name and does not represent a treatise on aspects of linguistic history. Rather, it focuses on the description of the characteristics of the German as well as the factual efforts of certain circles to abolish German. In the opinion of the author of this website, Study of Languages with Computer and Internet, reading the Metapedia article “German Language” is recommended for every German and for everyone interested in German.

2.1.12.2 Working with Dictionaries in Text File Format (.txt)

Scanned dictionaries are often available as PDF files, in e-book reader formats (epub, kindle, etc.) and in other versions. Search functions can be performed directly from the corresponding book title entry, as well as from the files themselves, on your local computer.

PDF files from scanned books can be bookmarked and used in a variety of ways, but their contents are not as directly accessible as encoded text files (text PDF files, .txt, .epub, etc. formats), apart from those that have been combined with text in parallel. The individual book pages resemble photos in a photo album.

Archive.org offers an internal document search function (“Search inside”) and presents the results, i.e. the individual sources, with blue pointers on the page number bar. If you move the mouse over a pointer, the content is displayed in a window. If you press on it, you jump to the corresponding book page in which the found entry is marked. In “Webster's home, school and office dictionary”, 1921, for example, 4 entries or references for the word “appreciate” are found on pages 41, 260, n643 and n660.







You can also look up words directly within a text file stored locally on your computer. The automatically cre­ated text file versions of a book have different qualities, not every one is suitable for practical use as a local dictionary. Also some books present the respective vocabulary exclusively with syllable boundaries, so that a direct looking up of words turns out difficult, since one would have to always know and enter the syllable boundaries for finding.

However, some text files are available in an excellent usable form, so that you can use them highly effectively

in your web browser or via a text editor as a local ref­er­ence dictionary.

In the above title, the text version can be viewed both on the website (“FULL TEXT”) and locally on your computer after saving. Please note: In the “Download Options” of the respective title there is the category “SHOW ALL”, if you press on it the directory with all available file versions and additional information and/or accompanying docu­ments appears. For many films and documentations the film text is offered parallel.

Now save the text file on your local computer. Open the file for example in Firefox, or in a file viewer or in a text editor. Drag the file directly into the browser (or into a previously opened tab), or open the file via the “File” menu. Press CTRL + F to open a search window. Now enter the word appreciate. Press the Enter key several times to get to the search results, or click the up and down arrows to the right of the search field. Use the ALT + Tab key combination to conveniently switch between the application windows. If you have opened the dictionary in a separate tab within your browser, hold down the CTRL key and use the TAB key to switch to the corresponding tab window.

2.2 Learning Pronunciation I: Phonetic Transcription

Written information (phonetic transcription), recordings and sound files as well as video films are available to you for the study of pronunciation. The pronunciation varies from region to region. However, there are often widespread tendencies, such as General American within American English.

In the long run, you could become familiar with a certain regional or local dialect; there is plenty of freely accessible source material available.

Examples for American English: “Dialect Map of Ameri­can English” • “27 fascinating maps that show how Ameri­cans speak English differently across the US” • “International Dialects of English Archive, United States of America” •

“North American English Dialects, Based on Pronunciation Patterns” • “American Dialect Society [WP-article]” • “List of dialects of English” • “Search Term: American Dialects” , Examples for German (de.metapedia.org): “Deutsche Mundarten” • “Kategorie:Deutsche Mundart” • “Kategorie:Deutsche Sprache”.

“Verbreitung der Deutschen Mundarten” (Distribution of the German dialects), nach Prof. Dr. W. Stammler, Maßstab 1:8000000. Bibliographisches Institut A.G., Leipzig; “Meyers Geographischer Handatlas”, “[...] siebente neubearbeitete und vermehrte Auflage [...], 1928”; Raw file, WP-article “Meyers Handatlas”


2.2.1 Phonetic Alphabets

Various phonetic alphabets are available for transcribing the pronunciation, including the widely used IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet)

Even without a thorough course of study, you will benefit from the IPA in a short period of time through pattern rec­og­ni­tion.

1. Look up the IPA phonetic notation of any words in your native language, or read introductory texts to the IPA at the beginning, in which the phonetic symbols are introduced using sample words in your native language, such as „English phonology“, „Appendix:English pronunciation“, and „Appendix:German pronunciation“. In addition to specialized dictionaries, there are numerous online dictionaries that contain the phonetic transcription as well as sound files and sample sentences for each listed word, including Linguee (good pronunciation references from native speakers, list of language directions) and Wiktionary (sample words: excursion, ascent).

2. Now look at the pronunciation of words you already know in your target language, e.g. in German, British English or French.

3. As you learn new words, you' ll pay attention to the IPA phonetic transcription notation and by reading familiar phonetic transcription patterns, you''ll get your first clues to pronunciation.

Searchengines form a good initial basis to find material for illustration, example queries: English Phonetics, phonétique anglaise, American English Phonetics, phonétique anglaise américaine. German Phonetics, phonétique allemande. The WP overview “Category:Pronunciation by language” also represents a good starting point for approx. 80 languages, example contents: “Appendix:English pronunciation”, “Appendix:German pronunciation”, “Appendix:​French pro­nun­cia­tion”. Further pronunciation articles: “Category:Language phonologies”, et al: “English phonology”, “Standard German phonology”, “French phonology”. See also: “Category:German language”, “Category:Languages of Germany”, “German language”, “Category:​English language”, “English language”.

2.2.2 Basic knowledge on the International Phonetic Alphabet, IPA

The IPA is one of several phonetic alphabets. It is available in different versions, some characters have been changed or discarded.

Illustrating there are vowel diagrams (vowel Chart), graphics, which symbolize an oral cavity in side view. They indicate how sounds (e.g. vowels) can be located in the mouth where they originate. For each language there are adapted vowel diagrams, with more or less listed sounds. Call up the WP graphic “IPA vowel chart with audio” and click on the individual sounds to listen to them. Try: “Interactive IPA Chart”.

Wikimedia Commons has a large collection of country-specific diagrams which you can use to refine your search to locate the language areas of your interest, for example with the search term combination IPA German vowel chart for German. Use search engines and also use the search terms phonetics and linguistics, skim the WP article “Linguistics” to get an idea of the different sub-disciplines. Further (search) examples: WP article “Standard German phonology”, “Category:German language”, “Kategorie:Deutsche Sprache”, “English phonology”, “Category:Language phonologies”. Search examples for German: German phonetics, image search German phonetics, video search German phonetics.

Read the WP article on the IPA and the overwie article Help:IPA (with sound files), which contains references to graphics with sound files in the “External links”, in­clud­ing the following:

“IPA Chart With Sounds”, IPA tables with superimposed audio links, link sensitive tables to the IPA. “Seeing Speech” contains IPA tables with audio and video links: When you press a sound, you hear several spoken examples and see a radiographic film documenting the moving speech anatomy. Fly over: “Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet”, „International Phonetic Alphabet chart”.

The stress on the words of a language can vary from (country) region to region, and in the case of several languages, stress changes and sound changes are said to have occurred over the centuries. However, taking this into account, dictionaries are relatively long-lived, especially when it comes to pronunciation; there are also prevalent pronunciation tendencies over wide areas.

Printed dictionaries contain their own “instructions for use” which also describe the phonetic alphabet used, some­times a (publisher's) own, this must be read at the beginning.

In the IPA, pronunciation, accentuation and length variations are presented in detail, with many different characters, the following selection is only a small excerpt. For more detailed pronunciation and accentuation details, please read the German overview “Diakritika und Suprasegmentalia”, in which numerous other symbols are explained. In the documentation of the TIPA document you will find the names of the IPA symbols in the appendix chapter, in the English manual under “Appendix A, Annotated List of TIPA Symbols”. See also “LATEX für Lin­gu­i­sten: IPA, Glos­sing und Baum­struk­tu­ren”..

Introductory, a few basic linguistic terms are described:

2.2.3 Vowels and Consonants

English: Examples of words that contain a vowel at the beginning of a word: Apple, owl, apricot. “[...] In English there are five vowel letters in the alphabet, but there are many more vowel sounds. [...] These letters are vowels in English: A, E, I, O, U, and sometimes Y. [...] The rest of the letters of the alphabet are consonants: [...]” (source: SE-​WP-​article “Vow­el”).

Read introductory: “Introduction to English Vowel Sounds” • “Long and Short English Vowels” • “9 Consonant Digraphs You Need to Know” • “How to Pronounce & Spell Vowel Digraphs” • “English Consonant Sounds” • “English Vowel Sounds”. Searches: English vowels • English consonants

German: Examples of words that contain a vowel (Selbstlaut) at the beginning of a word: Apfel, Obst. The letters a, e, i, o, u as well as the umlauts ä, ö, ü (and the diphthongs (Zwie­lau­te [also: „Dop­pel­lau­te“ resp. „Diphtonge“] au, ai, ei, eu, äu) form the vowels in German, the other letters of the German alphabet, are consonants (Mitlaute). In addition to the sources listed in section 2.2.1, detailed overviews with examples can also be found in the WP-article sections “Vo­ka­le im Deut­schen”, “Kon­so­nan­ten im Deut­schen” and in “Diphthon­ge im Deut­schen”.

Introductory reading:: “Selbst­lau­te/Mit­lau­te”, “Vo­kal”, „Kon­so­nant“, “Diphtong”.

2.2.4 Syllabels, Syllable and Word Boundaries resp. Wortfugen, the Rules for Word Division in the German Language

Words can be divided into smaller units, so-called syllables, using separation rules. A syllable contains at least one vowel.

English. Syllables are often considered the phonological ‘building blocks’ of words. [...] Syllabification is the sepa­ra­tion of a word into syllables, whether spoken or written.” (extract from WP-article “Syllable”).

Examples: The word potato has three syllables (vowels highlighted): po ta to. Damson consists of two syllables: dam  son, so does the word table: ta ble. You may wonder why the word apricot consists of only two syllables instead of three: apri cot.

That's because of the following fact: The written English language has no simple hyphenation rules (see 2.2.5).

German. A syllable contains at least one vowel. Example: The word Hei­mat­lie­be (Heimat + Love [Homeland + Love of one's native country]). Here there are four syl­la­bles, each containing one vowel: Hei  mat  lie  be or with black highlighted vowels Hei mat  lie be. The syllable boundaries are marked in the IPA with a dot resp. interpunct ().

Separation rules vary from language to language. From the German separation rules, the following were used in this example:

1. You can separate before a consonant. The word Heimat contains the consonant m, before this we can separate and receive Hei- mat or Hei  mat . In Lie­be the consonant b is contained (Liebe), before this we can also separate: lie-be or lie  be.

2. If two consonants follow each other, then one can separate between these two consonants. In the word Hei­matliebe the consecutive consonants t and l are contained, between these we can separate: Hei­mat- lie­be or Hei­matlie­be. Since this is a compound word (Hei­mat + Lie­be) we can also separate there because at this point the word joint (Wort­fu­ge) of the compound word is located.

3. Further separation rules (not complete):

There are exception rules for consonant separation. The mnemonic “Tren­ne nie st, denn es tut ihm weh!” (“Never separate st, because it hurts it!”) has its justification. Separating the st can lead to reader-unfriendly separations,[1] even with many compound words where we should actually separate according to the double consonant rule, e.g. with the word Bau­stahl (structural steel): If the st-rule is taken into account, the result is Bau- stahl resp. Bau  stahl, if not taken into account, the word Baus-tahl is the result; the Wach­stu­be ([guardroom] Wach-stube) occupied with guard personnel becomes a tube, from which wax comes out (Wachs-tube), if not observed.[3] For some compound words in which s and t border on each other, e.g. in Don-ners-tag (Thursday), the correctness is preserved.[2]

The double consonant ck is written with kk when separating, so that the correct stress is maintained. In “Zuk-ker” (sugar) the short “u” is kept, but “Zu-cker” leads to a long, wrongly emphasized “u”.

In syllabification cases may occur where the correct emphasis is not maintained despite observance of the rules. For­eign words can also lead to incorrect hyphenation: Adolescents are teenagers and not Tee-nager [te:ˈnaːɡɐ] (tea ro­dents).

Words are not separated in such a way that one vowel stands alone. Abend could be separated to A-bend, but no space would be gained and it would look typographically unpleasant.

Consonant clusters ch, sch, ph, ß, as well as z, x are regarded as single consonants for purposes of syllabification.” Ex­am­ple: Mäd­chen (Mädchen). “In the case of groups of consonants, the last one in the series usually starts the new syllable”. Examples: Schlendrian (Schlendri  an), Pünktchen (Pünktchen), “[...] ch is treated as one consonant”, (Quotations, knowledge content excerpt and examples of this paragraph taken from [2], p.9).

Reading recommendations:

[1] Der gro­ße »Blöff«, Neue deut­sche Recht­schrei­bung: ein­fach un­lern­bar [,] Clau­dia Lud­wig und Ka­rin Pfeif­fer, Stolz Ver­lag, 2005. (auf Ama­zon.de). [S.47, „Ku­ri­o­si­tä­ten und kein En­de“]

[2] „Schaum's Out­lines, German Grammar, Third Edition“, 1997, El­ke Gschoss­mann-​Hen­der­shot, Lo­is Feu­er­le. [Chapter 1, page 9 and 10, section “Syllabification”, subsection “Consonant Clusters and Groups of Consonants”]. McGraw-​Hill title page of the sixth edition, 2018: Schaum's Out­line of German Grammar, Sixth Edition (title on Ama­zon.com, on Amazon.de).

[3] „'Recht­schreib­re­form': Tren­nung“, schriftdeutsch.de

[4] „Grund­schu­le: Wort- und Sil­ben­tren­nung ein­fach er­klärt“

[5] Typesetting and hyphenation (appendix chapter A.3): “9.1 The Soft Hyphen”, “9.2 Separation Points without Hy­phens, protected Spaces and Words”, “9.3 The Problem of Hyphenation in E-Books and HTML-Documents, and its par­tial Solution”.

2.2.5 The English Language has no simple Hyphenation Rules
Confederate Flag. Link to source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Confederate_Rebel_Flag.svg

In German and probably in some other languages, few rules are enough to divide words into their syllables. In the English language there is no comparable simple set of rules. The following excerpt of the WP article “Syllabification” explains and illustrates the reasons for this:

“[...] At the end of a line, a word is separated in writing into parts, conventionally called "syllables", if it does not fit the line and if moving it to the next line would make the first line much shorter than the others. This can be a particular problem with very long words, and with narrow columns in newspapers. Word processing has automated the process of justification, making syllabification of shorter words often unnecessary.

In some languages, the spoken syllables are also the basis of syllabification in writing. However, possibly due to the weak correspondence between sounds and letters in the spelling of modern English, written syllabification in English is based mostly on etymological or morphological instead of phonetic principles.

For example, it is not possible to syllabify “learning” as lear-ning according to the correct syllabification of the living language. Seeing only lear- at the end of a line might mislead the reader into pronouncing the word incorrectly, as the digraph ea can hold many different values. The history of English orthography accounts for such phenomena.

English written syllabification therefore deals with a concept of “syllable” that does not correspond to the linguistic concept of a phonological (as opposed to morphological) unit.

As a result, even most native English speakers are unable to syllabify words according to established rules without consulting a dictionary or using a word processor. Schools usually do not provide much more advice on the topic than to consult a dictionary. In addition, there are differences between British and US syllabification and even between dictionaries of the same English variety. [...]”


2.2.6 The Accent (Stress)

Through the accentuation ("accent" or in English “stress”) language elements can be emphasized.

“[...] As a medium come to use

accent.[..:]”

“[...] The role that the accent plays within a language is also used to typify languages. A distinction is made between [...]:

  • Accent languages in which the word accent is phonologized and carries meaning. Examples are German, English and Polish.
  • Tonal languages in which a word accent does not exist and the pitch is significant. Examples are Chinese and related languages.
  • Pitch accent languages [...] which have the characteristics of accent and tone languages. Examples are Japanese and Swedish. [...]“

Excerpts taken (and translated) from the WP-​article „Ak­zent“.

2.2.7 The Stress Sign and the Secondary Stress Sign

The stress sign (ˈ) of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) indicates that the following syllable carries the primary stress (main stress). It is placed before the emphasized syllable.” (translated excerpt from: “Be­to­nungs­zei­chen”)

The secondary stress sign (ˌ) of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) indicates that the following syllable carries the secondary stress [...].” (translated excerpt from: „Ne­ben­be­to­nungs­zei­chen“)

Examples. The IPA notation was mainly taken from the dictionaries Pons.com and wiktionary.org, the tran­scrip­tion detail varies by dictionary and word entry. The main stress is highlighted in green, with some words the secondary stress is highlighted in light blue.

🍒 “cherry” [ˈtʃeri] consists of two syllables: cher  ry, the stress is on the first syllable: cher ry, cherry; Linguee entry, article at Wik­ti­o­nary /ˈt͡ʃɛɹi/, Pons entry. German die Kir­sche also has the accent on the first syllable: Kir  sche [ˈkɪrʃə] (Linguee entry).

The German word Pro­dukt [proˈdʊkt] consists of two syllables: Pro  dukt. The main emphasis is, according to the stress sign, on the second syllable: Pro dukt resp. Produkt resp. Pro-dukt, or, in the phonetic transcription, [proˈdʊkt]. In the Linguee entry for “Produkt”, click on the speaker icon to the right of the word to listen to the native speaker pronunciation and accent.

The English word engagement is pronounced differently in British and American English. If we call up the word entry at Pons.com, we receive the following information on phonetic transcription: “en  gage  ment [ɪnˈgeɪʤmənt, Am enˈ-] NOUN”. “Am” (or the flag symbol shown) refers to the (different) American pronunciation of the first syllable. The word consists of three syllables, the emphasis is on the second: en∙ gage∙ ment resp. engagement or en-gage-ment, or [ɪnˈgeɪʤmənt] or American [enˈgeɪʤmənt]. Listen to both the British and American pronunciations of the Linguee entry for engagement. Also call up the Wiktionary word entry and the Merriam-Webster entry for engagement and listen to their audio recordings.

Review the phonetic transcriptions, some of which contain additional information or may differ.

infrastructure [ˈɪnfrəˌstrʌktʃəʳ, Am -ɚ] contains three syl­la­bles: infra  struc  ture. According to phonetic transcription, the main stress is on the first syllable, the secondary stress on the second syllable: infrastruc ture, infrastructure, [ˈɪnfrəˌstrʌktʃəʳ] and [ˈɪnfrəˌstrʌktʃɚ]. Wiktionary entry /ˈɪnfɹəˌstɹʌk(t)ʃɚ/, at Linguee, at Pons.​com.

resist: re·sist [rɪˈzɪst], Linguee pronunciation, Wik­ti­o­nary entry /ɹɪˈzɪst/ resp. /ɹəˈzɪst/. 🍪 Humorous word-​ex­pla­na­tion on Youtube with the Cookie Monster “Sesame Street: Ian McKellen Teaches Cookie Monster to Resist”.

Also read the WP-article versions “Stress (linguistics)” and “Secondary Stress”. Always note the links at the end of the articles, they usually contain high-quality knowledge sources. From the “External Links” of the article „Stress (linguistics)“: “Word stress in English, SIX BASIC RULES of word stress” and an extremely detailed web page on stress, which also offers interactive exercises, “Word Stress Rules” (wordstress.info).

🥔 Engl. “po·ta·to <pl -es> [pəˈteɪtəʊ, Am -t̬oʊ] NOUN” (Pons), German [karˈtɔfl̩] Kar­tof­fel (Linguee, Pons), French “pomme de terre” [pɔm də tɛʀ] (apple of the soil), Linguee entry 🥪 Sandwich, sand wich “[ˈsænwɪʤ, Am -(d)wɪtʃ]” (Pons, Linguee, Wiktionary). 🌶️ Chili in German: [ˈtʃi:li] (Pons, Linguee), Chili in English: [ˈtʃɪli] (Pons, Linguee, Wiktionary).

2.2.8 The Length Sign
Image source: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:Laengenzeichen.gif

The length sign (ː) similar to the colon (:), [used] in the so-called International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), indicates that the sound represented by the preceding letter must be pronounced long (stretched).

The word ‘length sign’ serves as a generic term for three characters: the two stretch signs length sign (ː), half long sign (ˑ), and brevity sign (˘) of the IPA.

Translated excerpt from the WP-​article “Länge­zei­chen”. See in particular: “Length (phonetics)”.

🍓 The straw·berry “[ˈstrɔ:bəri, Am ˈstrɑ:ˌberi] NOUN” respective straw·berry. German die Erd­beere [ˈeːɐ̯tbeːrə] has three syllables, the stress is on the first: Erd bee  re. The sound displayed before the length sign (ː) must be pronounced long (stretched): [ˈeːɐ̯tbeːrə] respective Erdbeere. (Lin­guee, Pons, Wik­ti­o­nary entry: “[ˈeːɐ̯tbeːʁə], re­gi­o­nal auch: [ˈɛʁtbeːʁə]”).

🍉 Die Me­lo­ne [meˈlo:nə] (Linguee, Pons). Die Saat [za:t] (Linguee, Pons), engl. seed, [si:d] (Linguee). Der Pfad [pfa:t, Mehr­zahl ˈpfa:də] (Linguee, Pons).

2.2.9 Various Examples

🍆 Dt. die Auber­gine [obɛrˈʒi:nə] (Pons, Linguee). 🥑 Die Avo­ca­do [avoˈka:do] (Linguee, Pons). 🥨 Bre­zel [ˈbre:tsl̩] (Linguee, Pons), engl. pretzel pret  zel [ˈpretsəl] (Pons). 🍔 engl. ham­bur­ger, ham  bur  ger „[ˈhæmˌbɜ:gəʳ, Am -ˌbɜ:rgɚ] SUBST GASTR“ (source: Pons. sound at Linguee),

Figure skating, fig·ure skat·ing [ˈfɪgəʳ] [ˈskeɪtɪŋ, Am -t̬-] (Pons I, -II; Linguee). Deutsch: der Eis­kunst­lauf, Eis·kunst·lauf [ˈaɪ̯skʊnstˌlaʊ̯f] (Wik­ti­o­nary, Linguee). Deutsch: Sport­li­che Höchst­lei­stung, sport li  che Höchstlei stung, [ˈʃpɔʁtlɪçə] [ˈhøːçstˌlaɪ̯stʊŋ] (Wik­ti­o­nary I, -II; Linguee). Weib­li­cher Lieb­reiz, [ˈvaɪ̯plɪçɐ] [ˈliːpˌʁaɪ̯t͡s] (Wik­ti­o­nary-I, -II). Female grace, fe·male grace [ˈfi:meɪl] [greɪs] (Pons-I, -II). Ele­ganz [eleˈɡant͡s], [eləˈɡant͡s] (Wik­ti­o­nary), elegance [ˈelɪgən(t)s] (Pons, Linguee). Dt. Triumph, Tri umph, [triˈʊmf] (Linguee, Pons); engl. triumph, tri umph [ˈtraɪəm(p)f] (Linguee, Pons). An illustrative example from Portland, Oregon: ❄️ Tonya Harding Vi­deo I, Tonya Harding Vi­deo II. (more Tanya-Harding-videos: 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, 08).

Tonya Harding (USA) - 1991 Skate America, Figure Skating, Ladies' Free Skate Harding I
Tonya Harding - 1991 U.S. Figure Skating Championships - Long Program Harding II
Tonya Harding 1991 Skate America Exhibition Harding III
Tonya Harding 1991 Skate America Exhibition Triple Axel Harding IV
Leni Riefenstahl: Olympia - Fest der Völker (1936) Fanfare
Joan Anita Parker: Dodge Fever Commercials J.A. Parker

🏳️ Fah­ne [ˈfa:nə] (Linguee, Pons). Fanfare, Fan  fa  re [fanˈfa:rə], (Linguee Pons. Wik­ti­o­nary: [ˌfanˈfaːʁə]). Example video: Olympic fanfare from 1936 (15th minute), from “Leni Rie­fen­stahl: Olympia - Fest der Völ­ker (1936)”. Part II, “Leni Riefenstahl - Olympia 2 - Fest der Schönheit 1936 (German version)” (Aesthetics-​Play­list). City portrait “Ber­lin 1936 (in Farbe)”.

The time machine [taɪm məˈʃi:n] (Linguee); dt. die Zeitmaschine Zeit ma schi ne [ˈt͡saɪ̯tmaˌʃiːnə] (Wik­ti­o­nary, Linguee). Videos: “1928-1929: Early Sound Footage of Germany”, “1928-1929: Life in England (real sound)”. “German Empire around 1900 [part 1]”, “German Empire around 1900 [part 2]”. Feature film excerpt: Marty McFly begins to realize that he has arrived in a (probable) year 1955: “BTTF 1955 Hill Valley Mr. Sand­man”.

The Snowman [ˈsnow·man], deutsch der Schnee­mann [ˈʃneːˌman] (Wiktionary). Cartoon “Der Schnee­man”, 1944, a snowman sits down in the fridge to wait for summer.

“Gri­mas­sen schnei­den” [ɡʁiˈmasn̩] / [ɡʁiˈmasən] [ˈʃnaɪ̯dn̩] (Linguee), engl. to grimace “[grɪˈmeɪs, Am esp ˈgrɪməs]” (source: Pons. Sound at Linguee). Kon­tern [ˈkɔntɐn], engl. to counter [ˈkaʊntəʳ, Am -t̬ɚ] (Pons). Illustrating: “McDonald's - Traffic Jam”.

2.2.10 Further Articles on Phonetics

Sentence stress resp. “Prosodic stress” • “Phonetics” • “Satz­ak­zent” • “Ka­te­go­rie:Pho­ne­tik” • “Pho­ne­tik” • „Dia­kri­ti­ka und Su­pra­seg­men­ta­lia“


2.3 Notes on the Use of Machine Translation Systems, by the Example of DeepL

DeepL (deepl.com) represents a quantum leap in machine translation. Test the functions and fine functions, write individual sentences, copy text blocks and complete texts or upload documents to be translated and examine the results. Click on individual words in the translation text. Depending on the text, alternative formulations are also listed outside the windows.

Changes in the source text or in the translation text dynamically lead to (partial) new translations, the system continuously and directly takes into account changes and extensions made by the user. This also applies to the correction of any translation errors that may occur: If you start to reformulate something (partially) in the translated text, DeepL immediately dis­plays suggestions for sentence changes or re­for­mu­la­tions when you write the first word, including the actually correct translation if this has not been selected by the system or if the source text has not been formulated clearly enough. The system is extremely user-friendly, even with regard to incorrect input, such as typos or omitted words.

For its translations, DeepL accesses the huge data treas­ure of the context-sensitive dictionary Linguee, which it has acquired since 2007. The following lan­guages are currently supported for translation: German, English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Dutch, Po­lish, Russian. The lan­guage of the user interface fol­lows your browser's identification, but it can also be set explicitly in the menu at the bottom left.

Machine translations can never be taken over unchecked by computers, since more complex texts may have room for manoeuvre and more subtle interpretations. However, the machine translation standard that has now been achieved is shocking. Since the translations proposed for factual texts are absolutely ready for printing, it is no longer possible to speak of raw translations. Paragraph by paragraph, polished diamonds are supplied, absolutely natural-language texts; from time to time there are rough diamonds among them, which require minimal post-processing. This system is also excellent for checking the fluency of formulations, partially verifying the grammatical correctness of individual phrases, sen­tences and sentence constructions, fine-tuning and displaying trans­la­tion alternatives.

Inform yourself: WP-​article „DeepL Translator“, DeepL Blog, „Über­set­ze Do­ku­men­te mit DeepL“.

Modern translation systems such as DeepL work context-based, analysing the contextual frame of reference to select the right terms and phrases. Once they have identified the subject area or sub-discipline in which the text is to be located, they can precisely encircle, compile and arrange the required translation elements, drawing on huge databases of subject-vocabulary-specific (man-made) translations, whereby the jargon-specific phrases, idioms and formulations of the target language are accurately selected and assigned.





If an entire, complete document is loaded for translation, as much reference frame information as possible is transferred. If individual sentences or paragraphs are entered for translation, the user must, depending on the case, add additional information for reference frame recognition, or subsequently make corrections himself, either by overwriting (partially) the translation result, rewriting or supplementing it, or by clicking on individual words in the translation to select alternative proposals. In both cases, the rest of the text may be dynamically retranslated by the system, or new suggestions may be presented in windows that appear.

Translations can also be saved as text files.

Example: We are in the field of mathematics and our title or section title to be translated is: “Ein­füh­rung in den in­di­rek­ten Be­weis”.

If we leave it at this single sentence, the system has too few points of reference or orientation to be able to determine in which subject area or in which sub-discipline the text is to be located, so that a more general frame of reference may be chosen which results in a translation that is not appropriate.


text

Translation of a document title without further frame of reference information.


By clicking on a translated word, alternative suggestions appear:



If we write the discipline, mathematics, before the individual sentence, the correct translation appears from the outset:


text

By explicitly naming the subject area, department or (sub)discipline, it is possible to provide support for sentences with little reference frame information.


However, it probably requires only in the fewest cases of such extra references, the contentwise paragraph information delivers mostly already sufficient in­for­ma­tion.

When translating, it is recommended that you keep a second tab window of the translation system open so that you can enter individual sentences or formulations separately if required.

Recommendation:

1. Enter the paragraph/text excerpt to be translated or upload a corresponding file; the free variant has a length restriction.

2. Examine the translation. If you are not yet familiar with the English (or general target language) technical terminology of your text, you might want to look up an English-language Wikipedia article on the subject, or use search engines to find the relevant texts.

With Wikipedia, you first call up the version of the topic article in your source language and from there switch to the English version of the article (or to other target language versions). Which words and phrases predominate, represent the corresponding equivalents in your target language?

3. Use the possibility to click on words to see alternatives, also pay attention to suggestions displayed below the text field. (Partial) text changes in the source text always lead to dynamic (partial) new translations in the target language translation text window. In the case of very short texts, you may have to give hints on the subject area and write in front of your text, e.g. “Mathematics: [...]”, “Physics: [...]”, “Philosophy: [...]”, etc. Sometimes, however, you may only be able to copy fragments of the translation and find out the rest by yourself.

4. Use a separate window to check further details for the main text.



2.4 Language Courses with Video or Sound Files

Save your relevant course materials (PDFs, sound files). To save videos from Youtube and similar platforms, you can use browser extensions such as

Video DownloadHelper or separate, free programs such as xVideo​Service​Thief


2.4.1 “Deutsch – Warum nicht?”
German Language Course (A1, A2, B1) in 30 different Language Versions (EN, FR, ES, RU, etc. → DE)

“Deutsch – wa­rum nicht?” (“German - Why not?”) is a German course produced in 1991 by the German radio station “Deutsche Welle”, which comprehensively, thoroughly and easily conveys the basics of the German language. Further German courses from dw.com can be found on the “Learn German” subpage or on the other language version learning sections, “Apprendre l'Allemand” etc. (Lan­guage selectable in the upper right corner, “DW.com in 30 Languages”)

The course comprises four series, consisting of 104 written individual lessons with solutions, 24 appendix chapters and 104 moderated accompanying radio podcasts to the lessons. “Deutsch – wa­rum nicht?” is available in 30 language versions, i.e. all PDFs and audio accompanying documents are available in 30 language-moderated versions.

The PDF documents and MP3 files are available on the course accompanying page (EN, FR, RU etc.) of Deut-

sche Welle, the sound files are also published parallel on several websites, in each case complete,

also directly and free of charge accessible and, like the PDFs and MP3s on dw.com, also directly linkable (hotlinking).

The table after the language version overview table refers directly to all course contents of the English language version on dw.com. To save the PDFs and MP3s, point to the respective link with the mouse arrow, press the right mouse button and select the save function (Firefox: "Save target as..."). You can archive all individual documents on your local computer, or view and listen to the contents via your browser. You can also listen to the sound files via the radio podcast title page or via the embedded audio player.

The other language versions (PDFs and MP3s) can be accessed via the language version page of “Deutsche Welle”: Select your national language at dw.com (top right), then switch to the course section. Here is an overview of all language versions (skip table):



Recommendation: Create a file folder with the name “German-course” and a subfolder with the name “Series-01”. In this folder you create 32 subfolders (01 to 26 and A-01 to A-06). Then copy the “Series-01” folder three times and name the copies “Series-02”, “Series-03” and “Series-04”. Then download each individual PDF and MP3 document and save it in the corresponding folder. Finally, save the complete course several times, on different data media, also on several USB storage media.

This course teaches the naturally developed written German (descriptive linguistics), which in its expressive possibilities is incomparably more powerful, more

precise and more scientific than the present, on prescriptive linguistics based BRD-​End­pha­se-​Schrift­deutsch, which was forced by the occupying power administration (SHAEF unchanged valid! [1]) still during the fading dark age of the information monopoly, at the end of the 1990s. The latter is merely a distorted subset of the naturally-originated written German. More information, with examples and references, can be found in the appendix article “Naturally-originated Written German”.

Find out about free PDF viewers on pdfreaders.org, read the Wikipedia article on the free VLC media player that plays countless file formats (including mp3.) and offers numerous functions.

[1] German MP-article on the supreme legal framework SHAEF: “Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force”
https://de.metapedia.org/wiki/Supreme_Headquarters_Allied_Expeditionary_Force










2.4.2 „Eng­lisch für An­fän­ger“, “English for Beginners”, 63 Episodes, complete Link List (EN / DE → EN)

Moderation is held partly in English, with English text boards

UK-Flagge. Verweis auf Quelle: http://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Datei:Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg&filetimestamp=20080908144614
USA-Flagge. Verweis auf Quelle: http://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Datei:Flag_of_the_United_States.svg&filetimestamp=20100729060706

A classic among the Telekolleg's school television series. This course is an excellent way of teaching the essential, fundamental and more consistent core of the English language, which is likely to outlive the continuous, ever-changing dynamics of speech. With this introduction, the creators, presenters and actors have created a high-quality, relatively timeless English reference.

The video sequences are divided into 15 to 30 minute units, the didactic preparation and the speakers are excellent. Extract from the WP article Eng­lisch für Anfänger (Fern­seh­sen­dung)” (September 16, 2015), translated: „Englisch für Anfänger is a German language course in the form of a 51-part television series, which was produced in 1982 on behalf of Bavarian Television for the Telekolleg I, which led to the intermediate school leaving certificate, and has been broadcast as a repetition ever since. The course is aimed at German-speaking adult viewers who want to learn English from the ground up. The British author Graham Pascoe will present the programmes in two languages.

The two British actors Jane Egan and Russell Grant play short scenes of everyday occurrences that bring English grammar and vocabulary to the viewer on a beginner level. The series is accompanied by accompanying books and DVDs with episodes 1 to 51. [...]“

The WP-article also contains the ISBNs for the five accompanying volumes and the accompanying DVD with all 51 episodes, as well as further information.

Meanwhile all episodes, including the exercises, have been published on the official Youtube channel of the “ARD-Alpha” channel. All episodes can be watched directly or downloaded via Firefox extensions such as “Video DownloadHelper” and then watched on your computer, or on the TV via USB data carrier, or via a self-burned DVD (e.g. burned with “DVD Styler”).

Complete link list of all episodes of the official Youtube channel of “ARD-Alpha” (as of 03 February 2019):

Complete link list of all episodes of the official Youtube channel of "ARD-Alpha" (Status: February 03, 2019), official site at BR-Alpha, with all episodes (also downloadable) “Englisch für Anfänger Alle Ausstrahlungen”:


Englisch für Anfänger (followed green links not yet activated)



Exercise broadcasts on Englisch für Anfänger (followed green links not yet activated)


Further background information on the contributors to “English für Anfänger”, most of the information is taken from the Internet Movie Database: Regie was directed by Ian MacNaughton, the director of “Monty Python's Flying Circus”. “Englisch für Anfänger (1982– ) Full Cast & Crew”; director Ian MacNaughton (1925–2002), lead host Graham Pascoe, actors: Jane Egan, Russell Keith Grant, David Savile.


You can download the episodes using the Firefox extension Video DownloadHelper (WP-article).




Video and Literature Recommendation for French Beginners:

2.4.3 „Bon Courage“, 39 Episodes, complete Link List (DE → EN)
Flagge Frankreichs. Quelle: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_France.svg

“Bon Courage” is an outstanding classic of school television, with excellent speakers.

Translated extract from the German-language WP article “Bon Courage” (16.09.2015): “Bon Courage (literally: ‘Viel Erfolg!’) is a French language course in the form of a multi-part television series, which was produced by Bayerischer Fernsehen and runs during the 1st to 3rd trimester of the Telekolleg. The first broadcast was on 21 September 1991. The 39-part series in three seasons of 13 episodes is aimed at adults and is presented by Anouk Charlier. The French actors Diane Stolojan (from episode 27 Diane Du Mont), Alain Leverrier, Henri Allan-Veillet and Gilles Marchais appear in scenes that portray everyday situations in a humorous way. In each episode, before and after the actual language course, a French location is also presented, to which the respective game scene sometimes refers. Anouk Charlier speaks the exercises and comments on the films on French culture and history in German. [...]”

Complete playlist from Youtube channe “Learn Languages”: “Bon Courage”.

Official site at BR-Alpha, „Bon Courage“, all episodes also downloadable.


Bon Courage (followed green links not yet activated)

“C’est ça, la vie” is the advanced follow-up series to Bon courage, entirely in French. Excerpts from the associated WP-article:

“C'est ça, la vie is a French language course in the form of a multi-part television series produced by Bayerisches Fernsehen, the first season of which is part of the Telekolleg's 4th trimester.[...] The 26-part series in two seasons of 13 episodes is intended as a continuation of the Bon Courage beginners' language course and is aimed at adult, advanced learners. [...]

C'est ça, la vie presents the French-speaking professional world in France, Belgium and French-speaking Switzerland in the form of documentary reports. The programme is moderated by Anouk Charlier, who also conducts interviews with the protagonists in the reports. In the programmes of this language course, only French is spoken.”

Official site at BR-Alpha, „C'est ça, la vie“, all episodes also downloadable.


C’est ça, la vie (followed blue and green links not yet activated)


2.4.4 „Russisch Bitte!“ (DE → EN)
Flagge Rusßlands.Quelle: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_Russia.svg

Translated excerpt from the identical German WP-article: “[...] Russian, please! is a 30-part Russian course of the Telekolleg, in which the Cyrillic alphabet, the Russian grammar as well as the Russian basic vocabulary are taught. The individual programmes have a length of 30 minutes and are presented by Olga Barbian (called Astrid) and accompany Heikki Kinnunen on a trip to the Soviet Union in the 1980s. [...]”


2.4.5 FSI Language Courses (all Courses held in English)

The Foreign Service Institute offers free downloadable language courses with audio files, written in American English. The courses are available on many mirror sites, the original presence is no longer available (2019). Openculture.com provides an introductory text: “Study 40+ Languages with Free Lessons from the U.S. Foreign Service Institute”. The courses are mirrored on https://fsi-languages.yojik.eu and numerous other sites, including the Internet Archive (archive.org).

All courses are held in English and consist of illustrated textbooks with practice chapters (PDF documents), together with the corresponding audio files spoken by native speakers (.mp3 format).

With corresponding search term combinations you will find the language(s) you are looking for, e.g. for German: FSI German.

Please note: The respective courses can be conveniently downloaded as a ZIP archive, which eliminates the need to save the files individually.


Overview on the offered Languages of the FSI Language Courses (Mirror Page)

Amharic German Lao Shona
Arabic Greek Lingala Sinhala
Bengali Hausa Lugunda Spanish
Bulgarian Hebrew Moré Swahili
Cambodian Hindi Nepali Swedish
Cantonese Hungarian Norwegian Tagalog
Chinese Igbo Polish Thai
Chinyanja Italian Persian Turkish
Czech Japanese Portuguese Twi
Finnish Kirundi Romanian Vietnamese
French Kituba Russian Yoruba
Fula Korean Serbo-Croatian




2.4.6 “Hablamos Español”, 39 Episodes, complete Link List (DE → ES)

Ein Klas­si­ker un­ter den Spa­nisch-​Kur­sen, be­glei­tet von 3 Lehr­bü­chern. Aus­zug aus dem deutsch­spra­ch­igen WP-​Ar­ti­kel „Hablamos Español“:

Hablamos Español (spa­nisch für Wir spre­chen Spa­nisch) ist ein spa­ni­scher Sprach­kurs in Form ei­ner 39-​tei­li­gen Fern­seh­se­rie, der 1971 vom NDR pro­du­ziert wur­de und von Ma­ría Ro­sa Ser­ra­no kon­zi­piert wur­de.

Die Se­rie glie­dert sich in drei aus je 13 Fol­gen be­ste­hen­de Staf­feln, in de­ren er­ster die Grund­la­gen der spa­ni­schen Spra­che ver­mit­telt wer­den.

Als Schau­spie­ler wa­ren Jeannine Mestre als Car­men, José Luis Gómez als José Luis und Al­bert Boadella als Paco zu se­hen. [...] [Lehr­bü­cher mit ISBNs]“

Link­li­ste „Spa­nisch ler­nen : Hablamos Español“. [nach­fol­gen­de Ta­bel­le im Auf­bau]







2.5 Further Language Resources

Basic English Speaking (basicenglishspeaking.com) offers extensive learning materials for everyday communication in English, with sound files, including "Common English Idioms “Common English Idioms”: “There are up to 102 lessons of common idioms used in daily life. These lessons can make English learners sound more native. Each idiom lesson is written with a clear and concise definition. Each idiom is well illustrated by some example sentences to demonstrate how it is used in context. High-quality audio recording is also included to help improve your listening and speaking skills. All you need are your ears.”





2.6 The sovereign Use of the Keyboard, Language Acquisition

Use the opportunity to write with 10 fingers, learn the ten-finger system. This results in several advantages:

A big time saver, since you write down your thoughts in words blindly and directly, immediately, work on texts with highest efficiency and productiveness

No more distractions by unnecessary glances at the keyboard, continuous reading of telex dialogs on the screen, fast reaction times, calling of program functions by key combinations instead of time-consuming mouse clicks.

If necessary, you will also learn the original keyboard

layout and the ten-finger system for an additional language of your choice. Example: The keyboard layout(s) for French or the layout for German or the Russian PC keyboard(s) in Cyrillic. You can switch the keyboard layout in a flash by pressing a key combination or clicking the mouse. Newly learned words and phrases are written down several times in the ten-finger system of the original keyboard layout, in a word processing file, for the purpose of memorization. This also ensures immediate, fast written communication with language learning partners during direct written communication (telex dialogues, chatting).

2.6.1 Free Software for learning the Ten-Finger System, Teaching Articles

People of all professions write in the ten-finger system, for significant time savings and increased responsiveness, and for maximum concentration on content. Your attractiveness as a language learning partner is simply greater if you can answer your language tandem partner directly in writing in telex dialogues.

In the WP article “Touch typing”, various aspects are explained and in the German article ver­sion a com­pre-

hen­sive list of free software for the touch system and online help is referred to. Among the free programs, the free cross-platform writing trainer TIPP10 [English website version] (German WP-article) stands out. It offers a sophisticated, interactive and self-adaptive writing course.

In the Internet, countless information is available free of charge and directly. Examples: Google search for “touch system typing”, Google video search for “touch system”.

2.6.2 Language and Keyboard Layout

Acquire the ten-finger system not only for your mother tongue, but also for the other language you wish to acquire. There are usually several (country-specific) keyboard layout variants available for each language. The English Wikipedia article “Keyboard layout” offers a very comprehensive overview. The article itself is offered in different languages (menu on the left), other Versions may not be as comprehensive as the English original. The article contains numerous hyperlinks referring to national and country-specific Keyobard information; These subarticles can provide you with a lot of information, also in languages other than English. Always look (in each [sub] article, category, etc.) on the left for other language versions.

Modern operating systems support all common worldwide assignments. Switching is done either by mouse click or via a self-defined key combination (short­cut).

The following procedure is recommended for learning the keyboard layout of your target language:

Find the corresponding information in the WP-article “Keyboard layout” (or in one of its other language versions)

Example for German, French, and Russian: German: Jump to the section “QWERTZ”, from there follow the link “Main article: QWERTZ” (German article version: “QWERTZ-Tastaturbelegung”). The section “Austria and Germany” contains the hyperlink “Main article: German keyboard layout”. This article, “German keyboard layout”, provides comprehensive country-specific information (German article version “Tastaturbelegung”). Now click on the keyboard shown there, whereupon the WP page German keyboard layout "T1" according to DIN 2137-1:2012-06 appears. Press “More details” at the bottom right, which will take you to the File:KB Germany.svg. French: Go to the “AZERTY” section and select “Main article: AZERTY”. In this article (French version: “AZERTY”) you will find the relevant information. In the “French” section, click on the keyboard shown there, whereupon the WP page “AZERTY layout used in France” appears. Press “More details”, at the bottom right to go to the Wikimedia Commons page „File:KB France.svg“. Russian: In the Cyrillic section “6.4.2 Russian”, several keyboard layouts for Russian are shown. The separate article “JCUKEN” provides more information about the Russian standard keyboard layout.

Now click on the keyboard shown there, whereupon the WP page “ЙЦУКЕН key­board la­yout” appears. Press “More details” at the bottom right, which will take you to the Wikimedia Commons page „File:KB Russian.svg“.

There are now two ways to print the keyboard: You click on the original-SVG-​vector graphic file (German: “original file”, French: “Original file”, Russian: “Ori­gi­nal file”) and it opens in your web browser. Afterwards, go to the print preview in the browser menu: “Print” → “Print pre­view”. Now select “Landscape” for the orientation and then click on “Print”. Alternatively, you can also use a precalculated PNG-​file (different resolutions) for prin­ting. The table with the PNG versions is located under the respective SVG file.

As long as you have not yet mastered the keyboard layout of your target language, proceed as follows: 1. Print the keyboard. 2. Stick it on a firm cardboard base that you can cut or fold. 3. Attach the keyboard to your workplace so that it is always in your field of vision, or make a stand-up display.

To learn new (chapter episode) words, open a word processing file. Write down each new word to be learned in the ten-finger system, at least over several lines. Proceed word by word, paragraph by paragraph. Writing down entire texts is also useful for memorizing them.

Use the numerous instructions on the Internet to select the appropriate keyboard layout. For example, use the search query Russian keyboard or generally the search combination [target language] keyboard layout [operating system]. Keyboard layout graphics can also be found directly via the image search, for example via the Google image search for Russian keyboard, or for Russian keyboard layout.

Your language learning partner will be amazed if suddenly you can write just as fast or even faster than them. In the physical world, language is the key to the culture of peoples and to the hearts of your people. Read the comprehensive article on free, powerful online and offline dictionaries, language learning and translation projects: Freely accessible Language Resources: Dictionaries, Machine Translation, Language Courses.

Seriously striving to speak the national language of a local people involves a fundamental respect. The local people will be aware of this and, no matter how advanced your language skills are, you will be met with a correspondingly open-minded attitude.

2.6.3 Your National Keyboard Layout and the US-American PC-Keyboard-Layout, EFI and BIOS

Take a look at the English WP-​article “Keyboard layout”, whi­ch contains de­tailed information about your national key­board layout as well as hyperlinks to further articles about each individual keyboard character; WP-SVG graphics are also offered, e.g. on the the German PC-keyboard-layout. On the left side of the “Keyboard layout”-article, you can look up the language version that contains the relevant information for your national

keyboard version. Keyboard lay­out and EFI: In rare cases the EFI and possibly also the predecessor system BIOS or another program require an input with US-American keyboard mapping. Confirmations with “Y” (for “Yes”) and the reconstruction of already set system passwords can only be made if the US mapping is known. It is therefore essential that you file a printout of the US keyboard layout in your physical computer folder (WP-article on the US-keyboard layout, overview on the WP graphic file versions [various resolutions]).

2.6.4 Mechanical Keyboards

Frequent writers, authors and programmers prefer mechanical keyboards, for example the timeless, world famous Cherry G80-3000 LSCDE-2 (black version). There are worlds between PC foil circuit board keyboards and the right ones, the so-called mechanical keyboards, both in terms of writing comfort and touch precision, as well as in terms of consistent writing quality, robustness and durability of the keyboard.

Two articles about this keyboard class and its different types: “Benefits of a Mechanical Keyboard for Writers” • “Best Mechanical Keyboards For Typing – 2018 Edition”.




2.7 Maps on the German Language

“Völker- und Sprachenkarte von Europa”, “Map of peoples and languages of Europe”, Scale 1:30 000 000. Bibliographisches Institut A.G., Leipzig; „Meyers Geographischer Handatlas“, „[...] siebente neubearbeitete und vermehrte Auflage [...], 1928“. Raw file, WP-article “Meyers Handatlas”. Also read the Metapedia article “Deutsche Sprache” (auf de.metapedia.org).

Distribution [resp. dissemination] of the German language around 1913, original maps, free and directly available at the Internet Archive.

Detailed information on these maps are also available on the presentation site of of Dokumente-des-Deutschen-Reichs.de: „Verbreitung der Deutschen Sprache“, „Die hauptsächlichsten fremden Muttersprachen im Deut­schen Reich, 1913“.

“Verbreitung der Deutschen Mundarten” (Distribution of the German dialects), nach Prof. Dr. W. Stammler, Maßstab 1:8000000. Bibliographisches Institut A.G., Leipzig; “Meyers Geographischer Handatlas”, “[...] siebente neubearbeitete und vermehrte Auflage [...], 1928”; Raw file, WP-article “Meyers Handatlas”


Note to the maps published after 1915: The maps from "Meyer's Geographischer Handatlas" 1928, seventh edi­tion (“Verbreitung der Deutschen Mundarten”, “Völker- und Sprachenkarte von Europa”) are from 1928. It is un­like­ly that copyrights still exist on them, the maps also ap­peared to the knowledge of the website author al­ready in previous editions. However, only works pub-

lished in 1915 or before 1915 can be completely excluded from any copyright aspects. Therefore it is up to the users wheth­er they want to publish the maps further or not.

Considering this: The maps can be used 100 % free of charge, both for commercial and non-commercial pur­poses, all raw files are also downloadable.



2.8 Special Videos on the German language
Fahne des Deutschen Reichs. Quelle: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flag_of_the_German_Empire.svg

Watch on Youtube: „Why Germans Can Say Things No One Else Can“ (4 minutes), a film of „The School of life“. Related article: „Why Germans Can Say Things No One Else Can“. Excerpt:

   “We’re hugely dependent on language to help us express what we really think and feel. But some languages are better than others at crisply naming important sensations.
    Germans have been geniuses at inventing long – or what get called ‘compound’ – words that elegantly put a finger on emotions that we all know, but that other languages require whole clumsy sentences or paragraphs to express. [...]

German version, with German subtitles: „Wieso Deutsche Dinge sagen können, die kein Anderer sagen kann.“

The Youtube channel Mo­ment­auf­nah­men provides an extraordinary video on central and fundamental peculiarities of the German language, including numerous historical aspects. “Die Le­ben­dig­keit der deut­schen Spra­che”, 26 minutes.

Translated description: “In this audio from 7/31/ 2018, the peculiarity of the German language in comparison to Romanised peoples is pointed out. The German language has always been able to maintain its continuity with its original and peculiar sources. Only this fact, according to Fichte, has produced our great German poets, thinkers and musicians. The German language is in great danger due to overshaping by foreign languages ( especially Anglicisms ). Against this, an awareness of its uniqueness and uniqueness must be awakened.














November 17, 2019

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